Cummins 12v Common Problems
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The 5 Most Common Cummins 5.9L 12v Engine Problems

Jake Mayock

Meet Jake

Jake is a founder of 8020 Media and one of the lead writers at DieselIQ. He has over 10 years of experience in the automotive industry and is the proud owner of a 2002 F-350 7.3 PowerStroke. When Jake isn’t working, he’s usually wrenching on his PowerStroke, single turbo BMW, or Miata track build. Jake delivers tons of knowledge and hands-on experience and is a valuable asset for those looking to take their diesel to the next level. He is highly knowledgeable on Powerstroke and Duramax diesels.

The Cummins 12v is a legend when it comes to reliability. It is widely considered to be one of the most reliable diesel engines ever produced in consumer trucks. However, they still suffer common problems with such as the killer dowel pin, heater grid failure, TPS failure, and p-pump overflow valve issues.

The p-pump version of the engine is considered to be more reliable than the VE44 injection pump versions. We’re going to discuss all of these common problems in-depth and provide commentary around overall reliability. With that being said, we’ve already let you know that this is probably the most reliable diesel out there!

5.9L Cummins 12v Engine Problems

  • Killer Dowel Pin (KDP)
  • Heater Grid Failure
  • Throttle Position Sensor Failure
  • P7100 Overflow Valve
  • Transmission Power Limitation

Out of all the problems with the 5.9 engine, the only one that is potentially catastrophic is the killer dowel pin. Fortunately, all of the other problems are relatively minor in nature. With a preventative fix for KDP installed, the 12-valve is considered the most reliable modern production diesel engine. It certainly helps that this was a pre-emissions diesel and doesn’t have any problematic emissions equipment like you tend to see with the engines today like the 6.7 Cummins.

If you would rather consume this content via a video, check out our Dodge/RAM 5.9 Cummins 12v Common Problems & Reliability video below:

1. The Killer Dowel Pin

Despite the brutal reliability of the 5.9 Cummins 12v, it does have one fatal flaw. The 12v has a dowel pin that sits on the front of the engine. The pin is responsible for ensuring proper alignment of the timing cover, and is made of steel.

Engines experience “heat cycles” which is the basic heating and cooling of the engine. When your drive your truck, the engine heats up, and then you turn it off and it cools down. All metal is subject to expansion and contraction from heat cycles. With respect to the dowel pin, it expands under heat and contracts in cold. Over time, this can cause the pin to become loose. Combine that with the constant vibration created by a running engine, and then pin is prone to falling out of its hole.

When the pin falls out of the hole, there are a number of things that can happen:

  • Best case: it falls through the engine, hits nothing, and lands in the oil pan, causing no harm or damage. Unfortunately this is the least likely and least common result.
  • Bad case: pin contacts the cam gear, gets sucked into the injection pump and crank gears. Timing gets thrown off, the pistons collide with the valves, likely trashing both the head and block.
  • Worst case: the pin hits the gears, lands in the timing gear housing, and viciously blows a hole in the crankcase. Oil gushes out of the engine and your pistons and other internal engine components self destruct from a lack of lubrication.

Killer Dowel Pin Prevention

95% of the time, the KDP results in catastrophic engine damage, requiring a new engine. If you’re lucky, nothing bad happens. Unfortunately, there are no symptoms or warning signs to let you know before this will happen. It just happens randomly and ruins the engine instantaneously.

The commonality of this problem is debated, but it’s common enough that everyone recommends you fix it. Fortunately, preventing this problem is as simple as installing a tab over the dowel pin that will hold it in place and prevent it from falling off.

The prevention kits are about $50. Install is slightly more tricky,  since it requires the removal of various parts on the front of the engine. Whether you can DIY it or have to pay for install, we 100% recommend this fix for all 12-valves…and for any early year 24-valve too.

2. Heater Grid Failure

Cummins engines use a heater grid instead of glow plugs. The heater grid sits within the intake manifold. Air coming through the intake passes over the heater grid, where it is then delivered to each cylinder.

Over time, the heater grid is known to either outright fail or become clogged and dirty to the point that it no longer effectively heats the air. The heater grid only kicks on when the temperatures are below 59 degrees, so symptoms are likely only to occur in cold weather.

Heater Grid Failure Symptoms

  • Hard start or no start in the cold
  • Engine dies while idling
  • No heat coming from around the intake manifold

While the heater grid is mostly a cold start aid, it also helps reduce emissions and smoke dumping on start-up. Warmer air burns fuel more efficiently which in turn reduces emissions. Since the heater grid somewhat restricts airflow, it is not uncommon for people to delete the whole unit in high power applications. Although, there is pretty much no power or performance benefit to deleting it on a stock lightly modified Cummins.

3. Throttle Position Sensor (TPS) Failure

The throttle position sensor measures how far down you’ve pressed the accelerator pedal and relays that information to the mass airflow (MAF) sensor. Based on how far down the pedal is pressed, the MAF sensor either opens or closes the throttle body to let in the right amount of air. Essentially, it balances out your air to fuel ratios.

When the TPS sensor goes bad it sends bad readings to the MAF sensor. The end result is your engine either ends up getting too much air or too little air for the amount of fuel being delivered to the cylinders. This impacts air to fuel ratios which have a material impact on overall performance and driveability.

On the 5.9 12v, the TPS sensor is known to get clogged up and eventually begin failing. Over time the sensor itself picks up plenty of dust, dirt, and other materials which make it ineffective. Additionally, rusted or damaged wiring can also cause the TPS to malfunction.

Failure Symptoms

  • Erratic acceleration or RPM movement
  • Rough idling
  • Engine dies while running
  • Overall poor engine performance
  • Possible check engine light

Luckily, a bad TPS sensor is a very easy replacement. Unfortunately, it is about $230 for the OEM part which is a tad expensive for a small sensor. There are some more favorably prices aftermarket options on the market, but they are generally going to be less reliable.

94-98 TPS Replacement Part
89-93 TPS Replacement Part – Aftermarket

4. P7100 Overflow Valve

The P7100 injection pump (aka P-pump or inline pump) is a boss. Because it is mechanical and not electronically controlled, it is capable of handling up to 600rwhp without needing upgrading. Additionally, a few changes can be made by hand to make some additional power for free. All in all this is a super desirable injection pump and is known to be highly reliable.

A few things are known to happen with the OEM Bosch overflow valve:

  • The spring either breaks or loses its force
  • The seat erodes which causes the spring to lose force
  • Overflow valve leaks

Each one of these known issues results in reduced fuel pressure. When fuel pressure decreases, overall engine performance decreases as the cylinders do not get an adequate amount of fuel.


  • Hard starting
  • Poor acceleration and performance, loss of power
  • Low fuel pressure
  • Cylinder misfires
  • Rough idling

The best replacement option for a bad P7100 overflow valve is replacing the valve with a Tork Tek adjustable overflow valve. It allows for fuel pressure to be adjusted without messing with springs, it fixes leaking, seat erosion, etc.

5. Transmission Power Limitations

This is less of a common problem and more of a heads-up for anyone looking to mod their 5.9 12v. Because you can add about 100hp for $0 on these diesels, it’s very tempting to do so.

However, the transmission options for the 6BT will hold back performance capabilities without adequate upgrades. The 6BT was offered with three transmission options:

  • Chrysler 47RH (4-speed auto)
  • Getrag G360 (5-speed manual)
  • New Venture NV4500 (5-speed manual)

The 47RH auto is the least desirable with respect to added power. The Getrag and New Venture are more favorable for performance mods but still require upgrades once you try to power past the +100hp mark. At lighter power levels, an upgraded clutch will do, but as you start to look to push past 300rwhp, you will need to further modify the transmissions to hold the power.

5.9 Cummins 12v Reliability

The 5.9 Cummins 12v is widely regarded as the best and most reliable diesel engine ever produced. These engines are extremely simplistic, operating with mostly mechanical components rather than complicated electronic ones. The simplicity allows for massive power potential in conjunction with ultimate reliability.

The engine and its components such as the P7100 P-pump will easily make it to the 500,000 mile mark with adequate maintenance. The VE44 injection pump is less desirable, but this is mostly because of its performance potential and less about reliability. These engines are even known to break the 500k mile mark while pushing 500rwhp+. This is the reason this engine frequently takes the #1 spot for most reliable modern diesel engines.

The only potentially threatening problem with these engines is the Killer Dowel Pin. With that fixed there isn’t much to worry about.

With its insane power potential and relentless reliability, it’s no wonder this is considered one of the best diesels ever made.

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